Citing & Referencing Sources


It is very important that you acknowledge other people’s work in your assignments and research. This process is known as citing and referencing. Learn more about how to cite & reference in this guide.

Your instructors will often ask you to cite all the sources you use in your assignments - regardless of format:

  • written work that you paraphrase, summarize or directly quote from non-print eg: videos, images, paintings, interviews, social media posts, etc..

Sources are cited twice in a document:

  1. at the immediate point where you refer to or mention the source (this is called the in-text citation);
  2. at the end of your work (this is called either a bibliography, reference list or work cited).

Why is it important to cite & reference your sources?

  • It demonstrates how your work relates to others who have written on the same subject;
  • It enables the reader to distinguish your words from others;
  • It enables the reader to locate the sources you have used;
  • Most importantly, it helps you avoid being accused of plagiarism.

Citation Styles

At GUST you will be required to use either APA or MLA Formatting Styles. Check with your instructor to see which style you should use. Here is a comparison of the 2:

APA - use this file for science like natural, physical and social sciences.

MLA - use this style for essays on human society, culture, humanities, historical literature and arts.

In-text citations
(Jones, 2020, p.15)
(Jones 15)
Austen, J. (1918.) Pride and prejudice, Newton Press
Austen Jane, Pride and prejudice. Newton Press, 1918.
Formatting Rules:
Reference List Title
Works Cited
Title Page
Not required
Running Head
Page number (optional running head with title in all caps)
Last name and page number
Heading and Subheading
Has a defined format
No defined format
Block Quotes
Used for 40 words or more
Used for 4 or more lines

Check out the following resources for citing and referencing: